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Last November 02, 2011.
Honest Intellectual Inquiry:
Best of History Resources Worldwide
NOTE: It's possible that you arrived at this site via an outdated link. If that is the case. please check the URL above, or at the very bottom of this page (address, i.e. http://www.intellectual-inquiry.com/hist.htm) and if they don't match, you could be in someone else's frame. Please update your link to this site, assuming you wish to do so, of course... by clicking here:
Welcome to one of my favorite spots. One observation I came to some years ago is that history defies categoricization. Having said that, I nonetheless try here to categorize this page for the sake of those seeking information. Unlike some things, history has few absolutes: One area of the world may blend into another; historical epochs & periods may be defined differently by different cultures and/or people; and, most disconcertingly, much of history is subjective in nature - remember, with few exceptions, history is written by the conquerors, not the conquered. May you experience the same delight of historical exploration that I have had finding these websites.
I have divided my History page into the following subjects for your
General World History
European and Near East History
United States History
History of Other World Areas
General World History
Amazon Warrior Women From the PBS series Secrets of the Dead, examining the evidence for warrior women of high status on the steppes of southern Russia around 2500 years ago and the conjecture that these women's existence shows up in the writings of Herodotus as the Amazons defeated by the Greeks at the battle of Thermodon. Mitochondrial DNA from kurgan burials and that from a blond-haired girl from western Mongolia have been compared and found extremely close, showing a possible link through time. Intriguing argument.
Ancient Scripts The Origins of Writing: worldwide.
Annotated Chronology of Warfare
Antiquity Online Ancient civilizations worldwide.
Association for History and Computing Links to resources worldwide, and by country.
Calendars Through the Ages How humans have attempted to make order out of chaos - an interesting site full of detail. Did you know the French had their own calendar for a while?
Collapse: Why Do Civilizations Fall? Neat graphical exhibit from Annenberg/CPB Multimedia exploring the collapse of selected civilizations.
Database of the Higher Nobility in Europe From Denmark, pick your language & go!
Exploring Ancient World Cultures A good site, broken down by culture & period.
Mostly restricted to Europe and the U.S. in the last two centuries, but interesting nonetheless. From Beyond the Grave: Cemetery History
General World History For a site that seems to be the work of one person, this has to be the most complete set of links to everything historic that I've ever found! Seek and ye shall find. Amazing!
Historic Atlas Resource Library (OSSHE) Covers maps of Europe, Middle East, North Africa & North America.
Historical Text Archive Covering World History. Britannica rating = ****.
The History Index WWW-Virtual Library of History. It's all here. link.
by Glyn Davies. Web site on the book, and more. Check out A History of Money from Ancient Times to the Present Day A Chronology of Money, which traces its timeline with reference to world events. Neat. Website by Glyn Davies' son Roy.
The History of Plumbing From Babylon to the present. [Odd, isn't it, that this site is sponsored by a plumbing supply company?] link.
History On-Line Browse by type of history, geographical area, time period, type of resource link; or
History Texts & Documents Currently covers Europe, East Asia, & the United States.
HyperHistory World History Covers 3000 years of world history.
The Early History of Indo-European Languages Tracing the origins & dissemination of the Indo-European language group and people before 5500 BP until about a thousand years ago. These people settled throughout Europe, the Middle East, & the Indus Valley.
Institute of Historical Research European & World history with searches, from an United Kingdom server.
Non-Western History Reference for Oriental history, and Third-World history throughout the world, including Latin America.
'An Account of Gypsy Slavery & Persecution.' The history of the Rom from when they left India (c. 800 CE) to Europe (after 1100 CE) and the New World (beginning in the 1600s). Interesting. Also see
The Pariah Syndrome: here for a Rom timeline.
Philosophy of History Essays, book reviews & reference resources from the Friesian School.
Prehistory Exhibits From various parts of the world and covering several topics, from "Ancient Technology" to "Native American Settlements."
Royal & Noble Genealogical Data on the Web Amazing resource (mostly European), inc. U.S. Presidents, & links.
Russian History Chronology From 860 CE to the present.
Salt Made the World Go Round History of salt worldwide.
Secrets of the Dead PBS series on fascinating events in human history, major and minor - from the search for the first human to the 20th century's killer flu, from Amazon warrior women in Asia to witchcraft at Salem, Mass. Neat stuff.
Show Caves of the World Fantastic website that has info on caves and other underground structures, including an alphabetical list, lists by country, clickable maps, and much more. Explore galore.
Sources For [British] Building History An omnibus website on British historical buildings, from personal residences to famous monuments, and from prehistory to the near-present. Highly recommended.
Today-in-History Page With links to 'any-day' and 'any-month/year' pages. Interesting.
Urban History An International Urban History and Bibliography, but with focus on the Canadian town of Guelph.
Warfare in the Ancient World Primarily Greece & Rome, but including the Near and Far East also. link.
Web Chronology Project World history by civilization & by date. Very handy reference. link.
Women in World History Resource guide for teachers. Has wonderful links page!
World Cultures Internet world history classroom and anthology, with links.
World History Compass Links to all sorts of histories.
European and Near Eastern History
PREHISTORY (From Man's Origins to the Written Word)
Arranged in chronological order. N.B. For additional links of anthropological & archaeological interest, please check out my Science page links.
Search for the First Human From the PBS series Secrets of the Dead, on the exciting discovery of Orrorin tugenensis, a heavy candidate for our earliest homonid ancestor, in sediments dating from 5.8 to 6.1 million years ago. The assertion is also being made that Orrorin is more closely related to modern humans than the 3.2 m.y.o. Lucy. Very interesting.
The Life & Times of Early Man Three million years of history. Introduction for all ages.
Stone Age Habitats Man-made habitat evidence from 2 million BP to c. 7000 BP.
Boxgrove Archaeological Excavations From the Middle Pleistocene in England (c. 500,000 BP).
Stone Age Reference Collection (SARC) Technical site on stone tools.
Archaeological Resource Guide for Europe (ARGE) Large directory of websites by location/time period/subject for Europe (c. 250,000-1000 BP).
Institute for Ice Age Studies Concerned with the aquisition & dissemination of knowledge of Homo sapiens sapiens from 200,000-10,000 BP. [Offline currently.]
The Toba Volcano (or caldera) The super-volcano that erupted around 74,000 years ago that may account for the types of human diversity today.
Volcanic Winter and Differentiation of Modern Humans Explanation of how the Toba supervolcano may have nearly wiped out us humans. This is currently being hotly debated, but some might be interested in knowing there are probably ten different sites that have, and will again in the future, erupt again. One site is Yellowstone Park.
DNA & the Peopling of Siberia Suggestion this occurred c. 40-45,000 BP.
Chauvet Cave Virtual Reality Visit A beautiful website of the French cave with prehistoric cave art, some dating back to over 30,000 years BP. This link is but one part of the entire website. Worth a visit.
Mothers of Time Paleolithic figurines from Italy c. 25,000 years BP.
Prehistoric Archaeology of the Aegean From 22,000 to c. 3000 BP. Large site with lots of info for the scholar.
From the Stone Age to the Metal Age In Spain. Cave painting, megaliths & more.
Neolithic Warfare Essay on prehistoric (c. 12,000-3500 BP) warfare. Need updated browser.
"The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race" by Jared Diamond An essay about how the adoption of agriculture (The Agricultural Revolution) brought humanity overpopulation, disease, despotism and all the evils we didn't have as hunter/gatherers. A real eye-opener, and highly recommended.
Catalhoyuk British site on the ongoing excavations on, perhaps, the World's oldest urban settlement, estimated to be as old as 9000 years, in present-day Turkey.
Mysteries of Catalhoyuk By an anthropologist on the diggings there: her journal, findings, plus lots more. A fun site with a game, comics, mysteries etc. for all ages. Recommended.
Black Sea Artifacts Point to an Ancient Flood Fascinating article on the flooding of Euxine Lake, predecessor to the Black Sea, by the Mediterranean c. 7500 CE. Did the people who escaped migrate south with the memory until it passed into Mesopotamian mythology as the Epic of Gilgamesh? (See link below.)
Neolithic Cultures Covers Thessaly, Crete & the Cyclades, from c. 8000 BP to c. 4500 BP, part of a larger site.
Prehistoric Britain Index Covering from 7000-2055 BP, from Britannia.com. Covers a lot of info, but some of the writing is a bit "folksy."
The Sweet Track (Somerset Levels) Bronze Age trackways used to navigate the swamps. Some were in use as long as 6000 years ago, others a mere 4000.
Murder at Stonehenge an episode of the BBC and PBS series Secrets of the Dead, on the analysis of a skeleton found at the site, as well as an overview of the monument, with timeline, excavations, glossary and bibliography. Interesting.
Seahenge Wooden henge found in Holme-Next-The-Sea dated to 2050 BCE.
Megalithic Mysteries A photographic guide to Europe's prehistoric stone monuments (c. 6000-4000 BP), with
links to over 2000 other prehistoric pages.
Stone Pages A graphics-heavy site of the European Neolithic megaliths, c. 5500-3500 BP.
Celtic Inscribed Stones Language, Location and Environment. An online database of inscribed stones. Also, links to other helpful sites in this discipline.
The Neolithic Village at Skara Brae Photos of the amazing stone houses. Skara Brae was settled c. 5200 BP, & inhabited for c. 450 years. Webpage lacks much info, however. link.
Pictish Nation Scotland's early inhabitants, c. 5300-1400 BP (?).
The Iceman Project Medical Knowledge from 3200 BCE.
Evolution of Civilization in the Aegean From Paleolithic Greece to the Minoans. link.
The Beginnings of Greek civilization on Crete c. 2600 BCE to the Archaic Period, 800 BCE.
Minoans, Myceneans, & The Greek Dark Ages (a.k.a. "Barbarians & Bureaucrats") Neat site on early Aegean civilization, from c. 5100 to 2750 BP. [N.B. Although the Minoans & Myceneans had written languages, Linear A (Minoan) & Linear B (Mycenaean), Linear A has still not been decoded, so everything known is archaeological in nature.]
Akrotiri of Thera The city on the island of Thera which was obliterated when the volcano blew.
The Devastation of Crete The volcanic eruption responsible for the end of the Minoan civilization.
The Origins of Atlantis Analysing the possibility that Plato was referring to Crete as the fabled Atlantis when he talked about the ideal city.
In Search of Ancient Seafarers in the Arabian Gulf Interesting article on a Bronze Age ship c. 5000-3500 BP.
Flag Fen British excavations dating from c. 1000 BCE, Bronze Age Britain. Includes older excavations as well.
Troy The real city (3000 BCE to 500 CE) & its excavations, including
Schliemann's (The Treasure of Troy) A story of love, greed & theft in modern times to rival
, Homer's epic. The Iliad
Megalithic Surprise Yemeni Megaliths, erected by people who had lived there from 2400-800 BCE. From Archaeology Online.
ANCIENT HISTORY (From the Beginnings of Civilization to the Fall of Rome)
Ancient Scripts Covers writing systems worldwide, but has a lot on phonetics and linguistics as well. Worth a look.
Glyn Davies' book, with timelines from 9000 BCE to the present. A Comparative Chronology of Money from Ancient Times to the Present Day
Abzu: Guide to Resources for the Study of the Ancient Near East Great search engine resource.
Diotima: Women & Gender in the Ancient World A really good site covering the Middle East, as well as Greece & Rome. Check the "Essays" section, among others.
The Ancient Near East From EAWC, University of Evansville. Pretty comprehensive.
The Ancient World Web: Main Index
Internet Ancient History Sourcebook By Paul Halsall. Incredibly thorough, with links galore. Highly recommended.
Perseus Project Home Page Resources for the study of the Ancient World.
Ancient Maps From 6200 BCE to 400 CE. Enjoy.
Beirut (Lebanon) Paths to History Excavations of Beirut's Central District reveal its past, from 3000 BCE to 1918 CE.
Chronology & Terminology of the Bronze Age Aegean area. Handy reference.
Phoenicia: A Bequest Unearthed Possibly the oldest Mediterranean civilization, from 3000 BCE to 634 CE., located in present-day Lebanon & Israel. Fascinating, with tons of info & links. Recommended!
The Epic of Gilgamesh No-frills prose text of the Babylonian flood myth, later adapted by Old Testament writers.
The Code of Hammurabi The first extant code of law, by the Babylonian King (c. 3795-3750 BP). From the Avalon Project.
The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World Can you name them all?
Timeline of Egyptian History From early prehistory (2 million years BP) to the end of the British Occupation (1942). Each period, and every dynasty, has an essay. Really comprehensive info here. Recommended, but only for updated browsers.
Guardian's Web: Egypt One of the 'Net's best Egyptian sites. While you're there, check out the Official Website of Dr. Zahi Hawass the Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Egyptian antiquities. He's the one whose permission is needed to dig, and who is featured in many TV documentaries on Ancient Egypt. Includes history timeline, articles, recent news & discoveries, etc.
Ancient Egyptian Virtual Temple Come explore! Neat stuff, and a great bunch of annotated links by topic.
The Great Pyramid of Khufu Virtual Tour Built c. 4550 years ago. From PBS' Nova. Check it out.
Who Built the Pyramids Contrary to the Bible stories, Egyptian tombs and temples were built by regular people such as farmers, etc., who worked on these buildings during the time of the annual flooding of the Nile, in late summer and early autumn.
A 3300 Year Old Mystery of Ancient Egypt What disease was Akhenaton (a.k.a. the Heretic King) suffering from? An analysis of the king's mummy, statues, etc. - and fascinating.
Ancient Nubia The lesser-known southern neighbor of Egypt.
The Synchronization of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 2nd Millenium BC Dating info in Projects 2-8; not for the archaeological novice.
Babylon (580BC) The city at its height (no pun intended!). Interesting.
Petra Great Temple A virtual tour of one of the buildings in this city, originally known as Nabataea, located on two ancient trade routes southeast of Israel and Lebanon.
Archaic & Classical Greek History Overview from Homer to Alexander, from the Perseus Project.
The Ancient Greek World An overview. Need Netscape 6.0 or IE 5.0 to view.
ROMA: History & Civilization of the Eternal City Has everything from history to legends, kings to emperors, society & culture, & monuments. From Italy.
Rome: The Land and its Peoples The Italian peninsula before settlement. Continue with this series The Etruscans the agrarian people who lived in parts of the Italian peninsula, some close enough to Latium, the place later called Rome, to have influenced the Latins. Rome's Etruscan origins show up in their early architecture, religion and government.
The Roman Kingdom From 753 to 509 BCE the Etruscans ruled Rome itself. From Wikipedia, which delves further into the details on linked pages.
The Roman Republic From 509 to 31 BCE. Also from Wikipedia, which delves further into great detail.
The Vestal Virgins The keepers of the flame that kept Rome supreme.
Roman Emperors From Augustus to Romulus Augustulus (27 BCE-476 CE), plus emperors of Byzantium, Roman coins, books, etc.
Forum Romanum Literature, genealogy of the Gods (wonder why the emperors aren't included?), Roman private life, etc. link.
The Great Fire of Rome From the PBS series Secrets of the Dead, investigating the fire that destroyed two thirds of Rome in 54 A.D. and who was responsible for it. My own personal opinion? I think it may quite likely have been entirely accidental, but the theory that it might have been caused by Christians sounds more than a little plausable. Read, investigate, and decide for yourself.
The Roman Empire in the First Century A PBS website on everything Roman in the First Century C.E., including a detailed timeline, info on Roman society, poetry and philosophy, prominent Romans, and much more.
Slavery and Society in the Roman Empire Course at University of Pennsylvania. link.
Dead Romans Take the "Virtual Walkthrough" & enjoy the flavor. Has all kinds of stuff!
Roman Britain Index From Julius Caesar's first campaign (55 BCE) to Alaric's sack of Rome (410 CE).
Romans in Scotland From Glasgow's Hunterian Museum. If you don't have QTVR, you can still view the still photos & follow the text.
Hadrian's Wall In England, to separate the unconquerable parts from the civilized parts, ordered built by the Emperor Hadrian probably in 122 CE, after attempts to "civilize" Scotland.
The Museum of Antiquities' Virtual Mithraeum Informative page on a temple to Mithras found in England, dating to c. 200 CE. Neat.
Brittonic and Saxon Bath The English town during Roman & Saxon times.
Rome and Romania Fascinating site which will take years to read. Then go to the Decadence & the Successors of Rome: Francia, 447 - Present pages, & more. Then come to your own conclusions!
A Chronology of Christianity link.
The Demise of Paganism Part of a paper & course by James O'Donnell.
MEDIEVAL HISTORY (From the End of Rome to the Renaissance)
Hellenism in the Middle Ages A history of the Byzantine East from the time of the Emperor Constantine (324-337) to the fall of Constantinople (1453). Some good, in-depth material.
The European Ethnohistory Database The migrations of peoples from 3000 BCE to 1970 CE.
Early Church History From 50 CE to 1517 CE.
Medieval Sourcebook Edited by Paul Halsall, again. It's all here, part of ORB. Highly recommended.
Medieval Sourcebook: Byzantium Halsall's primary historical specialty; another ORB site.
Medieval Europe 500-1600CE Chronology of events overview. link.
Labyrinth Home Page The famous Medieval History resources.
The Online Medieval & Classical Library
ORB Online Encyclopaedia Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies (index). Recommended.
Early Medieval Maps From 400 to 1300 CE. Enjoy.
Medieval Technology Pages Technological adaptations & innovations in Europe from 500-1600 AD. Interesting.
Timeline of Islam From 622 CE to the present.
Specific References, by Date [if possible]
Vortigern Studies Homepage About Britain's history from the end of the Roman era to Arthur, i.e. the Fifth Century. On Vortigern the person, as he appears in history, and the various things that were happening at that time. Includes original source documents, guest essays, texts, maps and more.
The Ruin & Conquest of Britain 400-600 CE. By Howard Wiseman, a physicist (!), with some interesting essays. link.
Angelcynn A large site on Anglo-Saxon England from 400-900CE, with bunches of information. link.
Attila the Hun and the Battle of Chalons (451 CE) This "Scourge of God," supposedly responsible for the 'Fall of Rome,' apparently died on his wedding night from a nosebleed. (Need updated browser).
The 5th Century Anglo-Saxon Invasion of England Lots of detail.
Journal of Early Medieval Northwestern Europe c. 500 CE.; first issue on the Early Arthurian Britain. Go there. The Heroic Age
Anglo-Saxon England Index So much info, so little time... (410-1066 CE) From britannia.com
The Medieval Celtic Fringe By Christopher Snyder, part of ORB. Good links, too.
Sub-Roman Britain By Christopher Snyder. Good introduction to the problem of Arthur.
King Arthur & the Early British Kingdoms Circa 500 CE, with a paucity of facts but an abundance of speculation. Everyone loves a hero. Part of a larger site for the British History Club, with access to an incredible amount of British history for members and nonmembers alike. However, some pages are for members only, and there's an annual registration fee for access to those.
The Historicity & Historicisation of Arthur A scholarly essay on whether Arthur really existed.
The Great Plague Devastates Constantinople 541-543 CE Interesting article. link.
By the Venerable Bede, 673-675 CE. Ecclesiastical History of England
The compilation, over several centuries, of a history and historiography of England from year one, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle anno domini, to 1154. Some factual items included with a lot of wishful thinking, but nonetheless a classical document, as is the case with Bede's Ecclesiastical History above. [See also The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: The Avalon Project, at Yale Univ.]
"Feeding Medieval European Cities, 600-1500 CE" Seminar paper on the problems involved supplying & feeding urban environments.
Charlemagne 742-814 CE King of the Franks & first Holy Roman Emperor, thanks to one of the biggest forgeries in history, the
"Donation of Constantine", thought to be a real document until the Renaissance!
Charlemagne, another site.
Creating French Culture: Monarchs & Monasteries From Charlemagne to the late 15th century. link.
The Middle Ages: Feudal Life Basic intro to feudalism.
Feudalism & the Feudal Relationship From c. 800-1200 CE.
History of English Place Names Mostly from Old English, but includes Latin, Norse & Norman also. This and the link that follows were done for the Society for Creative Anachronism, but should be of interest to others as well.
Medieval Names Archive Germanic & English names, English borough names (mainly post-Conquest), etc. Links, too. link.
Feudal Terms Glossary of feudal, medieval, and castle terms; includes both AngloSaxon and the Danelaw. NOTE: This is the website of an actual castle, Hemyock Castle (built circa 1380), in Devon. Check
here for a complete list of links, including other glossary terms, the Manor's appearance in The Domesday Book And you can stay there while you learn! Really nice looking place for a holiday.
Feudalism in Japan and Europe Interesting site on how feudalism arose in two unrelated cultures.
The World of the Vikings Viking resources.
The Viking Legacy All about the Viking attacks on Europe.
The Anglo Saxon Chronicle Originally compiled on the orders of King Alfred c. 890 CE, & maintained until the middle of the 12th Century. Another website for the Anglo Saxon Chronicle is here.
Saxon Church at Bradford-on-Avon A beautiful little church which, although definitely pre-Norman, has so far been impossible to date.
Regia Anglorum: Anglo-Saxon, Viking, Norman & British Living History 950-1066AD It's back online! Feel kinda what it was like to live in Anglo-Saxon times. Good info.
The Battle of Maldon, 991 AD The last stand of Byrhtnoth, Earl of Essex, against a Viking Horde. A bard immortalized the event.
Dragons in the Sky English-Speaking Communities at the Close of the Millenia (1000 CE vs. 2000 CE).
New Electronic Museum of the City of Bologne (Nu.M.E.) Interactive virtual environment that allows travelling through time witnessing the evolution of Bologne from 1000 to 2000 AD. In Italian and English. Try it.
The Year 1000: Apocalyptic Year Extraordinaire? What was thought about Y1K...then. Check the rest of the site also.
Uniting the Kingdoms? "How the many kingdoms in Britain and Ireland were conquered and ruled by the French...." Try it out. link.
Invasion of England and the Bayeux Tapestry, 1064-1066 CE
Bayeux Tapestry Images of the famous tapestry depicting the Battle of Hastings, 1066. And here is another site (part of the site listed next).
The Battle of Hastings, 1066 CE Fancy graphics site, really nice looking, & with interesting content, too. It should appeal to just about anyone seeking overall info on England from Roman times to the end of William's reign.
Secrets of the Norman Invasion Detailed thesis on where the Normans landed in England, 1066. Lots of other info & links, too. Cool.
Medieval Resources Glossary of Medieval terms, & bibliographies of various subject matter, both pre- & post-Conquest.
Misconceptions about the Middle Ages A must-read regarding terminology & life in Medieval Europe, cutting through some of the nonsense.
Royal Genealogical Data (Directory) British & Western European Royals.
Biographies of the Rich & (In)Famous Nobilities & otherwise. From pre-Conquest to the present, but mainly post-Renaissance.
The Narrative History of London: The Norman Period From here you can go forward to the 20th Century, or back to the Romans.
Center for Metropolitan History Info on London from early times to the present. Has links to sites devoted to other European cities and areas.
Corfe Castle One of England's famous castles, beginning in Roman & Saxon times.
The Tower of London Probably England's most famous castle. A graphics-intensive tour.
Castle Links To some of the many castles built from the time of the Conquest on. There are more not listed.
Castles on the Web Commercial website with links to castles all over Europe, Japan, Ethiopia, the Balkans, Turkey & more; plus heraldry & other things Medieval. Nice, but the cookies get in the way.
Compiled 1085-6 CE on the orders of William I (the Conqueror or the Bastard, depending on your point of view) of England. Some of the text is still being compiled. The Domesday Book Online
The Purpose of the The question of why it was made. From Domesday Book: A Quandary , a highly recommended publication. Essays in Medieval Studies
Medieval English Urban History Fascinating history (to me, anyway) of urban development - the hows, whys, wheres, etc. - from prehistoric, Roman, & Anglo Saxon sites to specific Medieval towns & cities. Could possibly be generalized to urban development most anywhere. Good links too. Recommended!
Essays on Medieval Europe Mostly after 1066; primary & secondary resources about life & religion on the Continent & in Britain.
Medieval & Renaissance Culture Heaps of links to everything from architecture to heraldry to science. Recommended.
Medieval Times: An Exploration Through the Middle Ages Graphics-intensive site on Medieval life & times, for all ages. Castles, knights, & all that.
The Online Guide to Canterbury (History) Occupied onward from Roman times, but the town as we know it first took place around 1100 CE, when the Cathedral was built. Nice.
Canterbury The Kentish town, its history & cathedral, the county, & much more. See the
Site Map for the whole index, including genealogical material. Neat stuff!
Carcassonne: The Only Full Example of Medieval Fortifications in Europe Now just in French, but possibly soon in English.
Carcassonne: Medieval City Only in French, but extensive and highly recommended. Updated browser a must.
The Aurora of 1192
Paris at the Time of King Philippe-Auguste (1165-1223) Introduction to the flavor of Paris in the Middle Ages, for all ages.
Wharram Percy Remarkable excavations of a deserted village occupied from the Iron Age to the 16th Century. Mentioned in the Domesday Book.
Markets & Fairs in England & Wales to 1516 Towns of every size, everywhere, listed alphabetically or by county. The larger the town, the more copious the info.
Social Minorities, on marginality in Medieval Europe, from Labyrinth. Good lessons on intolerance.
Dominion & Domination of the Gentle Sex: The Lives of Medieval Women From ThinkQuest. Info & links. link.
Medieval Women Bunch of resources here.
Knighthood, Chivalry & Tournaments Resource Library Beginning in the 12th Century, but not flourishing until the 14th. Much info, especially for re-enactments.
Albert of Aix: Best source for Crusade histories through 1120, & especially the "Popular Crusade" in 1096. Historia Hierosolymita
The Crusades From c. 1095 to 1254. Online course from Boise State U., click on "Visitor Center" to see the contents & go on a virtual pilgramage, or find out about the Arab & European settings, & much more, by Dr. Skip Knox. Highly recommended!
The Crusades From the Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Original sources, history & more. Also highly recommended.
Knighthood & Orders of Chivalry in Europe. Gobs of info, & links, too.
Cultural Frictions Conference Interesting papers on Medieval Studies in Postmodern Contexts. Warning: May contain objectionable material for some.
"The Regulation of Churching in Medieval Northern France: The Implications of Exclusion" Essay by Paula Rieder on the 1270 statute re the purification of women after childbirth.
Heretics, Heresies & the Church Lecture, with links, by Steven Kreis.
Catholics, Heretics & Heresy Nullens' study of heresy in the Church, from the Cathars to the Rosicrucians. link.
Cathares: Voyage en Terre d'Oc Beautiful site on le Pays d'Oc, location of the Albigensian Crusade (c. 1209 to 1321), a must-see (in French).
The Albigensian Crusade Covers the years from 1209 to 1255, although the last Cathars weren't exterminated until 1329.
The Knights Templar From the establishment of the order (1118) to its destruction (1314). An astonishing true story of Templar wealth & Royal greed.
The famous document signed by King John of England in 1215. Magna Carta
Philip IV (The Fair) France's power-hungry king from 1285-1314, responsible for the demise of the Templars. Check out the rest of this site as well.
The Medieval Inquisition: Overview From 1231 by Pope Gregory IX, to 1398, when sorcery was included as heresy, becoming an excuse to try people for witchcraft. Includes info on the Cathars, the Beguines & other stuff. link.
The Spanish Inquisition From 1478 (by Pope sixtus) to 1834, when it was officially disbanded by decree (although the killing ended much earlier). link.
The Roman Inquisition Not established until 1542 by Pope Paul III, & more benign than in other countries ( link); focusing on the background history for the trial of
Galileo, the "heretic." link.
Crisis in the Church The popes in Avignon ("The Babylonian Captivity," 1305-1378) & the dual papacy ("The Great Schism," 1378-1415). Today we'd call it 'politics!'
The Avignon Papacy, 1305-1378 Interesting page on the problems faced by the Church in Avignon & how they were resolved, for instance, Church poverty was settled partially by institutionalizing the practice of simony, or selling of indulgences for remission of sins. link.
Medieval English Towns Urban history of various urban areas in England with lots of info, plus links.
Robert the Bruce The fighter-king of Scotland who won the decisive battle of Bannockburn, 1314 CE. Some interesting stuff here, plus a lot of fluff on Braveheart.
Robert the Bruce Another site on the warrior king of Scotland.
A book review of the book by W.C. Jordan of the famine lasting from 1315 to 1322. The Great Famine: Northern Europe in the Early Fourteenth Century
Famines & Plagues in the 14th Century Concise picture of the conditions present during the 1300s. link.
Epidemic Disease in London Collection of papers given at the symposium "Epidemic Disease in London: from the Black Death to Cholera", 19 March 1992, edited by J.A.I. Champion.
The Black Plague Links (not all working) to some great web resources on the Pestilence.
The Black Death Another site (not listed on the site above), with some different info; be sure to click on the links & go to the next lecture also to learn more.
Mystery of the Black Death From the PBS series Secrets of the Dead, on a mutated form of the gene CCR5, called "delta 32," and how those people fortunate enough to possess it are immune from HIV and quite possibly also the bubonic plague. Includes online resources. Fascinating.
The Social Position of the Surgeon in London, 1350-1450 From Essays in Medieval Studies.
"Five Hundred Years of English Poor Laws, 1349-1834: Regulating the Working & Nonworking Poor" Essay by William P. Quigley.
The Little Ice Age in Europe A climatic cooling that had dire consequences throughout Europe, impacting war, famine, plague - indeed, life itself. Starting in the early 14th Century and continuing until about 1850, almost all of Europe was affected by this phenomenon in one way or another.
The Hundred Years' War From 1337 to 1453, from the French side. See The Hundred Years' War: The Final Phase for a more in-depth study of the years 1422-1453. Lots of interesting stuff here, including Joan of Arc.
Jeanne la Pucelle & the Dying God Interesting account of Joan of Arc (1412-1431) [go to Part 3 if you want to skip the first 2 parts] & her mysticism.
Gilles de Rais (1404-1440) Joan's companion in fighting the English in the Hundred Years' War, later tried for heresy & burned.
Gilles de Rais: The Pious Monster Another site on this very strange man, from The Crime Library.
Conversion, Sex and Segregation: Iberian Jews and Christians after the Massacres of 1391 During the Spanish Inquisition many Jews converted to Catholicism. This essay shows the Church's influence on people living in Spain.
The Burning Times A list of documented witchcraft trials and "incidents" that involved the killing of people. Names given where known. link.
The Witch Trial History From around 1350 to the end of the 1700s, with other info. link.
The Witching Hours: Medieval Through Enlightenment Witch History Another excellent site, which has lots of info & links.
The gorgeous book-of-hours of the brother of Charles V of France, illustrated c. 1412-1416. Gotta see these! Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
A Blood Libel Cult: Anderl von Rinn, d. 1462 Fascinating story of a 3 year old boy who was murdered, supposedly by Jews in the 15th century, which turns out as probably nothing more than folklore with no truth to it. The cult didn't start until the 17th c., and the story was recorded by the Brothers Grimm in the early 19th C.
Late Medieval Maps From 1300 to 1500 CE.
The Fall of Constantinople, 1453 The final end of the Roman Christian Empire by the Turkish Sultan Mehmed II. Considered by many to be the end of the Middle Ages.
Heraldry Good genealogy material here also.
Heraldry on the Internet Links to everything heraldic.
Gazetteer of Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to 1516 And from before the Norman Conquest (1066). Reference data. link.
MODERN HISTORY (From the Reformation to Today)
The Borgias: The First Crime Family Corruption, murder, incest (possibly) - all in the Papal Family! link.
European Voyages of Exploration With concentration on the Iberian explorers. See the Winds & Routes page (need Macromedia Flash 4.0 plug-in) for an explanation of the routes explorers took. Neat.
Modern World History: Patterns of Interaction From 1300 to the present, for download as PDF documents.
The Columbus Navigation Homepage History, Navigation & Landfall.
Discoverers Web Gobs of info & links to some of the larger sites on discovery & exploration.
Renaissance Maps From 1500 to 1870 CE.
History of the Netherlands From the Romans to the present, but focusing on the time of the Renaissance onwards. Detailed info.
Le Poulet Gauche 16th Century French times & culture, done as a reference background for an historical reenactment group.
English Local History Selected times and places in early modern British history and more - lotsa interesting-looking stuff here.
Tyburn Tree Homepage All about the famous gallows (1571-1783) in London, with selected dying speeches, bibliography, & more.
Scottish Archive Network Scotland's written history, from 1500 to the present. Useful for genealogists also. link.
The Reformation Guide The European challenge of Catholic supremacy, starting in Germany with Luther (1517, when he nailed his 95 theses to the Wittenberg church door), from a Protestant point of view.
The Protestant Inquisition The Reformation from a Catholic POV.
Tudor England From Henry VII (1485) through Elizabeth I (1603). Really nice site.
Wrong Side of the River: London's Disreputable South Bank in the Sixteenth & Seventeenth Centuries Interesting glimpse at life in the Southwark area.
The Spanish Armada From the Catholic (i.e. Spanish) point of view. Occurred in 1588.
Pope Sixtus V's 1588 Bull against Queen Elizabeth, Usurper, in support of the Armada Hmmm...
Guy Fawkes and Bonfire Night The political-religious background of the Gunpowder Plot, celebrated throughout Britain on November 5th. link.
The one most are familiar with. King James Bible, 1611
History of the British Newspaper From 1620 to the present.
Blaeu Atlas of northwest Europe (primarily the Netherlands, Germany, Belgium), Eastern Europe (Romania, Russia, Croatia, etc.) and misc. other. Possibly the greatest mapmaker ever, published from 1635 to 1662, depending on the edition. Beautifully drawn maps.
The (Civil) War and Cromwell in England, from Channel 4.
Epidemic Disease in London, a series of papers which focuses on disease from c. 1650 to the 18th c., and its analysis.
Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector of England from 1649 to 1658. Extensive bio, particularly favorable, ignoring the strict Puritanism that fell as a pall over England at that time. link.
The Great Plague (1665) and
The Great Fire (1666) of London. Neat sites from England's Channel 4. Or you can read about these disasters from the Diaries of Samuel Pepys. Just click on the appropriate year on the left of the webpage.
Invitation to a Funeral Tour of Restoration London Fascinating site with true tales of various places in & around London.
Eighteenth Century Resources: History Jack Lynch's links to great resources in British, American and World history. Wonderful.
The Age of Empire in Britain Starting with the accession of William (of Orange) & Mary, 1689, & ending with the death of Queen Victoria, 1901.
Pirates Site About the history, biographies, and details about piracy. In England privateers were paid by the government to raid enemy ships, but this period of laissez faire lasted only a few decades.
The Alexander Palace Time Machine Neat site on the Russian palace, the rulers who lived there, & much more.
The French Revolution Background, the revolution & more. Scads of stuff.
Napoleon (1769-1821) Extensive French website, in English. But of course!
Pathways to the Past from the UK Public Records Office, specializing in the 19th and 20th Centuries. link.
Greenwood's Map of London 1827 Wonderful, highly detailed map with clickable segments. Highly recommended.
Victorian London 19th Century London social history - highly amusing.
The Victorian Web Everything Victorian. Victoria herself reigned from 1837 to 1901.
Victorian Political History Overview Lots of info here.
Bizarre England Blue laws in England.
Dumb Laws International Includes a section on the U.S. (below); each law can be rated, perhaps according to dumbness?? Worth checking out.
The Sexton's Tales Stories of some of the bodies buried in Highgate Cemetery since it was opened, 1839. From the BBC; a neat site.
"A 'Perverse and Ill-Fated People'" Essay on English peoples' perceptions of the Irish, 1845-52, during the potato famine.
Views of the Famine Contemporary articles & illustrations. Interesting.
Dickens' London Map London in Dickens' life & work.
The Tube, London's Official Underground Website Showing you how to get from here to there in London, schedules, downloadable maps and more.
London Underground History Featuring disused stations on London's tube, an interesting tour. Check out the extensive links for other information, including London's Underground Edwardian Tile Patterns, a diagrammatic history labor of love.
"Jack the Ripper as the Threat of Outcast London" by Robert F. Haggard in the journal Essays in History.
The Home of Grigory Efimovitch Rasputin The man who mesmerized the Russian throne into belief of a cure for hemophilia.
The Gertrude Bell Project A great project on an amazing woman: A hundred years ago she traveled through Europe & the Middle East, and it's all recorded here. link.
World War One From the BBC.
German Propaganda Archive Warning: Outright racism!
World War Two From the BBC.
The Holocaust History Project Quite interesting site with essays, documents from WWII, reproductions of the Nuremburg Trials, & more. Great resource.
Holland Under the Third Reich: A Forgotten Chapter Interesting.
The Anne Frank Homepage Neat site on Anne, her house, diary & more. link.
United States History
(with an attempt at chronology and subject matter)
Please note: Native American History prior to European Contact is listed . below
General American History Resources:
The American Religious Experience Great site on religion in America, Native and immigrant, Colonial to the present.
A Grave Affair: Mourning Arts and Gravestones Links to websites on cemeteries, gravestones, and preservation. Interesting.
Historical United States Census Data Browser Decadal searches for census data. Great for genealogists.
History Detectives Interactive PBS series on places and episodes in U.S. history: Do it yourself, quizzes, games and all sorts of fun for the whole family. Recommended.
The History Place Another bunch of links to American history.
The TimePage, a.k.a An Examination of Cycles in American History Awesome links, starting with Native Americans to European Voyages, then from the Colonial 'Cycle' to the Present. Go there!
Specialized American History Resources:
Columbus and the Age of Discovery According to one source, this is the "Mother of all Databases."
The Syphilis Enigma From the PBS series Secrets of the Dead, a discussion on the origins of syphilis. With too much evidence for pre-Columbian syphilitic skeletons in Europe to ignore, it's now thought that the sexually-transmitted forms of the disease originated in both the Old and New Worlds long before Columbus ever set sail for the Indes.
Spanish Conquest of Native [North] America According to this, Cabeza de Vaca was the first, in 1528, to explore the continent from what would be Florida to Texas, then south into Mexico. True?
Colonial Cycle (1589-1692)
This Week in North American Indian History Loads of info & links.
African American History Lots of good links.
Droughts Played Major Role in Roanoke & Jamestown Tragedies Studies of tree-ring growth tell the tale (1587-89 & 1606-12).
Death at Jamestown From the PBS series Secrets of the Dead, on the Jamestown colony and the winter of 1609-10, when 90% of the inhabitants perished. Theories as to why so many died include arsenic and the Plague, as well as starvation from drought-induced crop failures. Fascinmating ideas here.
The Mayflower Web Pages All about the ship, its passengers & crew in 1620, & more. Good for genealogy buffs too.
The (1692) Salem Witch Trials A fairly thorough student paper on the subject, covering everything from witch stereotypes to the process of proof of guilt. Interesting.
The Witches Curse From the PBS series Secrets of the Dead, on the Salem witch trials and the theory that ergot, a fungus growing on rye and other crops, was responsible for the delerious behavior shown by Salem residents. Lots of info, resources online, and more.
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Mainly a site for an actual visit, but focusing on the time from 1750 to 1783.
Archiving Early America From the 1700's to the 1800's.
Documenting the American South From the late colonial period to the early 20th Century.
North American Slave Narratives, Beginnings to 1920 Part of the above site ( link); fascinating accounts mostly from the 19th Century. One of these, Life & Adventures of Robert the Hermit of Massachusetts, begs to be a Hollywood movie!
Benjamin Franklin: An Enlightened American Good biography. link.
California Missions Founded from 1769 to 1823, by the Spanish.
The Revolutionary War: A Journey Towards Freedom Encompasses the time from 1763 to 1810. Check the "Infopedia" page.
Liberty! The American Revolution From the PBS documentary.
Intelligence in the War of Independence Yes, even back then!
So you thought the first U.S. president was George Washington? Not quite:
Presidents of the Continental Congresses
John Hanson, First President
Presidents From Washington to Bush Jr.
Religion in the Early Republic
Native American Chronology 1776-1830
Mountain Men and the Fur Trade Scads of info & links - neat. link.
Lewis & Clark Expedition From 1804-06. Nice site.
On Borrowed Ground: Free African-American Life in Charleston, SC Interesting.
The African-American Mosaic From the Library of Congress. Fascinating historical information, including the following:
Colonization A movement to resettle free African-Americans in Liberia as an alternative to emancipation in the U.S. The American Colonization Society was formed in 1817. link.
American Slave Narratives Fascinating.
The Underground Railroad The network of people & places assisting escaped slaves fleeing to the north, starting c. 1830.
African American History Links to some very informative articles and other info.
The American Local History Network: Locations Index Links to some wonderful historical & genealogical sites by state or territory. Explore!
American Memory Collections From the Library of Congress. Neat.
New Perspectives on the West The PBS series, showing a timeline from prehistory to European contact, but focusing on the time from 1820 to 1917.
History of the American West Annotated links to some great resources.
Native American Chronology 1830-1890
Santa Fe Trail Research Articles Used starting in 1821 as a route to (New) Mexico, an interesting bunch of articles about the trail.
The Oregon-California Trails Assoc. Information on both the Oregon & California Trails used by emigrants from 1841 onward. Great links to other Oregon trails, & to other trails west.
Gold Rush Chronology 1846-49 Detailed timeline of the California Gold Rush in San Francisco, one of 15 segments. Wow!
The Donner Party The tragedy of the most famous emigrant train to California, 1846. Make sure to visit the
Westward Migration page for a map showing the development of the California Trail. Excellent site.
The Hastings Cutoff The route used first in 1846, which did much to seal the fate of the Donner Party. Very informative.
Links to Parties Along the Trails West: The Donner Party Miscellaneous link information, diaries, etc. on the Donner Party.
The Breen Diary, written while the Donner Party was snowbound in the Sierras.
The Gold Rush A good place to get the flavor of the California Gold Rush (1848), with fun facts, the PBS program, and teacher resources. link.
Mormon Church History Articles covering facets of Mormon history from various points of view.
The Mountain Meadows Massacre One of the most infamous events in the history of the westward movement, September 1857, not normally found in Mormon history texts.
Pony Express Home Station This remarkable mail delivery system was only in service from April 1860 to November 1861, replaced by the stagecoach.
The Overland Trail The trail used by the Overland Stage Company, established in 1862.
Abraham Lincoln Online Elected president November 1860, assassinated April 1865.
The American Civil War 1861-1865. Looks like this site has almost everything.
Civil War Interactive But if you haven't had enough, here's another neat site. "History With An Attitude."
The Valley of the Shadow: Two Communities in the American Civil War Augusta Co., Georgia & Franklin Co., Pennsylvania: How they dealt with the war from thousands of primary documents. Great idea. To be available on CD-ROM.
The Ku Klux Klan The group's history, starting with it's founding in 1866 to today, plus more. Hard to read, however, due to color choices.
Transcontinental Railroad On the historic joining of the Union & Pacific Railroads near Promontory Point, Utah, 1869. From the Central Pacific RR Photographic History Museum.
California Heritage Collection Great collection of images from the history of California, & important links, too.
Los Angeles: Past, Present and Future History from 1769, culture, images & much more - a wonderful resource. Recommended.
Sin, Fire and Gold! The Barbary Coast A program by KQED, San Francisco's public broadcast station.
Ghost Towns & History of the Old West This site has just about every ghost town known.
Tears in the Sand On the infamous Sand Creek Massacre when, in 1864, Col. Chivington led the slaughter of 200+ Cheyenne on the Sand Creek Reservation.
The Great Chicago Fire & the Web of Memory In 1871 - the fire & the city's recovery, plus people's remembrances of the event. Good concept.
The Battle of the Little Big Horn In 1876, the U.S. centennial, Custer tried the mettle of the Sioux, and lost. Interesting reading.
Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce The justly famous warrior who, in 1877, was forced to flee the land ceded to his tribe by treaty, was captured, & forced to live in a forsaken part of Kansas. link.
Imaging & Imagining the Ghost Dance: James Mooney's Illustrations & Photographs 1891-93 The Arapaho, Cheyenne & Sioux ceremonies, of which the Arapaho was his only first-hand experience. Wonderful.
Western Outlaw - Lawman History Assoc. Pages & links on the famous outlaws of the old West. link.
The Hatfields & the McCoys An article on the BlueRidge Country website about the famous feud which was concluded in 1888. link.
A book published in 1890 on tenement life in New York City. How the Other Half Lives
Tenement Museum The history & excavation of 97 Orchard Street on New York City's Lower East Side. Fascinating & fun exploration.
Ellis Island History (from 1890), photos, genealogy, all sorts of stuff.
San Francisco Earthquake, 1906 From the Discovery Channel, a fascinating report on the famous earthquake and fire, and how damage figures were hidden, or blamed on the fire, for insurance purposes, how building standards were relaxed by over 50% to rebuild fast, and much more. Makes one wonder about things to come...
History of the Federal Bureau of Investigation from its beginnings in 1908. Also check out the FBI's Famous Cases. Interesting.
Route 66 Federation The famous highway bypassed by progress, with lotsa links to other Route 66 sites, named in 1926. Really interesting.
Dumb Laws in the U.S. Listed by state and city, and can be rated (by degree of hilarity). Includes useful/useless info on some.
Burma Shave Slogans A bit of Americana (almost) lost to time, from 1927-63, on the old U.S. highways - where (and when) you weren't going so fast you couldn't read them! And every year or so the website moves and hides for a while - guess it's just trying to imitate the signs. (But this time it's a tad too glaring for me. Anything called "The Fifties Web" kinda lets you know. Hmmmm.
World War I (1914-18) History Guide With subject matter as vast as this, the best I can do, I think, is to supply a source page from The Search Beat.
Killer Flu From the PBS series Secrets of the Dead, analysing the reasons for the virulence of the 1918 flu strain, especially among young adults.
The Stock Market Crash of 1929 From the New York Times coverage. What's better to learn about a timely event than newspaper articles published at that time, by that paper? Gives you that up-close-and-personal feeling.
Reflections on Black History Memoirs from 1907 through 1935, 84 parts so far, dictated by Black journalist Thomas C. Fleming & published by The Free Press. Great reading.
World War II (1939-45) Another vast subject, so here's a good page of links.
The Japanese American Internment The Germans & the Japanese weren't the only ones with prisoner camps! Great site, and some wonderful links as well.
Japanese Internment Camps The U.S. concentration camps for Japanese-Americans during WWII: very informative; check out the home page also.
Cold War Museum Covers 1945 to 1990. Good links.
The American 1950's American Culture & Literature.
Vietnam From PBS's American Experience, good info & links.
History of Other World Areas
OLD WORLD HISTORY
Africa: General History Great site for older students and researchers; tons of info. Done by UNESCO.
Africa: History Part of World History Archives.
Africa: Kingdoms of the Medieval Sudan Intro course on the Sudanic states of West Africa. Nice.
Africa Research Central A clearinghouse of African primary sources.
Riddle of Great Zimbabwe Article abstract from Archaeology on this great African fortress.
The Ruins of Great Zimbabwe Pictures of the wonderful Iron Age site.
Africa: Wonders of the African World PBS series on the history & culture.
African Prehistory Interactive site great for school use, with folklore, games, & more.
African Studies Internet Resources From Columbia Univ. Check it out.
Leo Africanus: Description of Timbuktu Exiled from Granada (Spain, in 1492) he settled in Morocco. His description was written in the early 1500s. Fascinating.
Day of the Zulu From the PBS series Secrets of the Dead, on the amazing defeat of the British by Zulu warriors January 22, 1879, thanks, it is thought, to a combination of superior battle strategy, weapons, and traditional native medicine.
Australia: Aboriginal Cultural History Lots of links.
Australian National Archives
Cambodia: Angkor Wat Khmer site dated to c. 1113 CE; a totally amazing architectural complex. History, myths & legends, architecture, & much more.
Cambodian Genocide Program From 1975-79, 20% of the Cambodian population lost their lives to the Pol Pot regime.
China: The Great Wall Well-written piece.
Chinese History Pretty thorough site with all aspects of Chinese History.
Chinese, Japanese & Indian Emperors Informative page.
Center for the Study of Eurasian Nomads History and archaeology of peoples of the Eurasian steppes, the Silk Road, etc.
Harappa: The Indus Valley and the Raj Some really neat old pictures here!
Indian History (KalaRanga Timeline) Interesting.
Japanese History Pretty comprehensive.
Japanese History: The Samurai Resources for learning about this legendary warrior class, with a forum and links.
Mongol People Part of a larger site.
Non-Western History Sites Links, including Latin-American sites.
NEW WORLD HISTORY
The History of Native America Covers North & South America, from the World History Archives.
Mound Builders History & archaeology, with links to various Native American mound builder websites.
Social Sciences in Latin America Links to some interesting sites. Check out
Latin American Network Information Center for other topics on the area.
Teotihuacan Home Page The metropolis in the NE part of the Basin of Mexico, dating from c. 700 BCE to c. 650 CE, about 700 years prior to the Aztec Tenochtitlan. Incl. QT movies.
Lords of the Earth Maya, Aztec, Mixtec, Inca & North American Native Center. Includes history, religion, & a whole lot more. Recommended.
MayaPages Mayan civilization past and present.
Mesoweb An exploration of MesoAmerican cultures. Nice site on the Maya & related cultures, plus animations, archaeological interface, news & more.
Ancient MesoAmerican Civilizations: Maya, Mixtec, Zapotec, & Aztec.
MEXICAS The Aztecs of Mexico, their history & culture Great site.
Templo Mayor Museum Museum exploring the major temple of the Aztecs in Tenochtitlan, the ancient location of Mexico City. Explains rituals, gods, history & more. Go there!
Mexico A series of articles of Mexican history to the present, from the Historical Text Archive.
Nahuatl Gateway Links to pages on the native language of the Aztecs.
Pre-Columbian Studies From Dumbarton Oaks Research Library. Wonderful bunch of links.
Chicano/Latino History Links for research into Chicano/Latino affairs.
Countries in Latin America & the Caribbean From Latin American Network Info Center; many in Spanish, & covering mostly non-historic info.
History of South America in General Documents in the recent history of many countries in South America, from the World History Archives.
Non-Western History Sites Links, including Latin-American sites.
US Latino Websites Well-annotated and "recommended" by Iowa State U., but hasn't been updated since 2002. Oops.
Webpage launched September 10, 1999
Latest additions & corrections July 07,2010
Latest links verification November 02, 2011
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